During the workshop ‘Challenges and opportunities in the co-management of transnational community projects’, organized by Katrina Burgess in 2010, representatives of migrant clubs, academia, civil organizations and government agencies identified that strengthening communication between communities and promoting the development of capacities and education within them is a central aspect so that the programs to which migrants have access with the aim of generating social and economic projects work in the medium and long term. In addition, it is essential to strengthen links with the communities, for which the construction committees can help as the official counterpart of the clubs and use technological tools to facilitate the strengthening of said links.
Other relevant conclusions reached by these actors in the workshop were the following:
1. Make a diagnosis that considers the needs of the community, the availability of their own resources and analyze the willingness of people to participate in the communities in Mexico and What are they willing to participate in? These diagnoses must necessarily be of a binational nature.
2. Greater communication between neighboring communities is necessary so that efforts can be combined in order to design projects with a regional impact.
3. Establish groups of clubs (not federations) to promote regional works. In this sense, it is clear that resistance can be overcome and programs can be depoliticized to carry out inter-municipal and inter-state projects.
4. It is essential that the programs facilitate the maintenance and monitoring of social and economic projects.
5. The actors involved must avoid reproducing migrant paternalism in productive projects. At all times, a vision must be fostered that development is the co-responsibility of all actors.
6. The key to the 3×1 Program is frank, open and permanent communication between the four parties, so it is important to maintain a constant dialogue. The ideal is that all the actors analyze which is the best control mechanism, to avoid mismanagement and that the projects are developed in the best way.
Another challenge that should be included in the agenda is the need to promote the equitable participation of women and young people in this type of initiative. Although the Operating Rules of the 3×1 Program for fiscal year 2011 establish that the “Program will promote equal opportunities between women and men, through the gradual incorporation of the gender perspective in the various phases of its operation, specifically in terms of disaggregation of information and indicators and external evaluation”, it is not yet possible to identify the steps that lead to this objective, as well as the elements that allow finding information disaggregated by sex in terms of coverage and impact, both in the documents generated by SEDESOL, as in the external evaluations themselves.
Indeed, the role of women in the migratory phenomenon must be taken into account in the design and operation of public programs that promote the participation of migrants in the development of Mexico, thought from two dimensions: on the one hand, in In some regions, it is mainly men who emigrate, which makes women natural actors in the development of the communities of origin; but, on the other hand, although the statistics fluctuate by region and even according to economic conditions in the United States, the truth is that the emigration of women to the United States is also important not only because of their participation as remittance senders , but also for the leadership they can exercise in the search for opportunities to access public resources for local development.
To illustrate this point, consider the following data. According to estimates from the National Institute of Geography and Statistics (INEGI) of the Mexican population living in the United States, 56.1% are men and 43.9% women; most of this population has a young demographic composition; Of the 11.9 million Mexicans residing in the United States, 56.1% are between 15 and 39 years old; Disaggregated by sex, the percentage of men between the ages of 15 and 39 is greater than that of women (32.8 and 23.3%,
Regarding the dynamics of the male-female ratio of Mexican migrants residing in the United States, INEGI estimates made through the 2007 American Community Survey show that it is made up of 128 men for every 100 women. This trend has varied over time, although a propensity towards greater male migration can be seen. While for the “period 1990-1999 the indicator decreases to 120 men for every 100 women, after having reached a value of 124 in the population that entered the previous years, for the years between 2000 and 2006 the indicator shows a ratio of 140 men for every 100 women. Finally, of the estimated 183,000 Mexicans who entered the United States during 2007 […] 177 men for every 100 women,
Although ideally federal, state and municipal programs should be part of a strategy to generate sustainable and equitable development in Mexico, migrants cannot wait for actors at all levels to coordinate to generate a policy of this type. This is a medium and long term goal. However, there are issues outlined that are specific and it is essential to begin to raise awareness, negotiate, lobby and influence so that these changes are translated into concrete actions in Mexico and the United States. However, the Mexican diaspora in the United States has identified the urgency of creating a multidisciplinary team to advance in the search for alternative models that promote a fairer and more equitable regional development, which will reduce the economic and social inequality that exists in the country. . In this effort, it will be essential not to lose sight of the fact that there are conditions that escape the hands of migrants, such as the situation of the economy of the neighboring country to the north and its impact on the ability to send individual and collective remittances. Without a doubt, it is an aspect that must be considered in the very design of the initiatives that are promoted. The Mexico Forum can be a watershed in this matter.