To a large extent due to the advocacy process of the migrant clubs, in 2009 there was another fundamental change in the 3×1 Program. That year, a section was opened to finance only business projects, commonly known as ‘productive projects’. However, under this scheme, the federal government is the only one obliged to match the resources contributed by the clubs. The participation of the municipalities and the federal entities is voluntary. Few projects of this nature have been carried out to date, although there is a growing interest on the part of migrants to access public resources to create projects that translate into sources of income and job creation in their localities. originally.
Fox and Gois (2010) identify some factors by which this situation is generated. First, the lack of resources that people in the localities of origin can invest in business activities, added to the lack of technical and business skills, hinder the process of creating and consolidating this type of project. In addition, it is difficult for the people who reside in these localities, as well as public servants, to follow up on the projects that have financing from the migrants who reside in the United States. Finally, productive projects are considered private investment projects and not as collective investment, as a public good,
Both García Zamora and other researchers from the Migration and Development Network have identified these and other challenges. García Zamora (2005), defines the transition from social projects, mostly infrastructure, to business projects as the ‘step of death’ due to a series of obstacles at the macro, meso and micro levels. These include: a) The structural crisis of the national economy, b) the dismantling of the state for development, c) the impacts of the Free Trade Agreement with the United States and Canada, d) the economic and organizational weakness of the Mexican communities, and e) the institutional fragility of migrant organizations in terms of availability of time, professionalization, organization and training. To this are added some problems related to the proper functioning of the 3×1 Program and that must be taken into account when designing business projects. Among these are the lack of
coordination and planning between the three levels of government, politicization of the program, administrative irregularities, limited functioning of the works committees, lack of
adequate supervision, and manipulation of investment contracts by state and municipal governments (García Zamora 2007: 168- 169).
These are some of the challenges that migrants face when they want to start a business project and that must be addressed in a phased manner. In other words, the first thing that must be done is to facilitate access to key information on the steps that must be followed to establish a company of a productive nature. Therefore, the government must facilitate the necessary process for the migrant to inject capital into the country. This includes carrying out horizontal communication and promotion campaigns on the type of existing programs with the migrant community, as well as simplifying the operating rules of existing programs, such as the 3×1 Program, to prevent the ‘red tape’ from becoming an obstacle to investment.
A relevant example is the issue of official identification. In order for a person to request resources from any dependency, they need an official identification, which is usually the voting card issued by the Federal Electoral Institute (IFE) or the passport. However, people
Migrants cannot access a card to vote abroad because the IFE does not have the legal power to issue this document outside of Mexican territory. In other cases, it is necessary to have a Federal Taxpayer Registry (RFC) that is only issued by the Tax Administration System (SAT) coordinated by the Ministry of Finance and Public Credit (SHCP) or the Unique Population Registry Code (CURP). The RFC, like the voting card, is only issued in Mexico, so a person residing outside the country cannot carry out the process, which complicates and delays investment in the communities of origin. For this reason, it is important to establish agreements between the relevant government agencies to facilitate the issuance of these documents outside the national territory,