The current is one of the most difficult times to be a migrant in the United States. The radicalization of the anti-immigrant discourse and the inability to generate a political response to counteract it has led both the undocumented and those who have a temporary or permanent visa to feel great insecurity and see that there are attempts to reduce their rights and benefits. For example, among permanent residents there is a fear that arrests for minor problems such as drunk driving could lead to deportation despite having lived in the country for decades. Efforts to amend the country’s Constitution and deny citizenship to those born in the United States but of undocumented parents was unthinkable until recently.

One of the underlying problems is that since 1986 the country has not had a comprehensive immigration reform. The conditions have not been met and the political environment continues to deteriorate, leading to the emergence of various initiatives at the local and state level that seek to fill the existing vacuum (in 2010, 346 state initiatives and resolutions related to migration were approved, most of them focused on employment, law enforcement, or driver’s licenses). The last great effort for a comprehensive immigration reform, represented by the Kennedy-McCain initiative (Secure America and Orderly Immigration Act (S. 1033)) of May 2005, did not receive the necessary support and now even Senator John McCain refuses to adopt a similar posture. In his last re-election campaign, the Arizona senator emphasized his support for control measures, such as strengthening security along the border. Equally notable is the fact that in the House of Representatives the subcommittee on immigration has been renamed by the new Republican majority and is now called the House Subcommittee on Immigration Policy and Enforcement.